Diabetes mellitus disease or diabetes or diabetes is a disease characterized by blood glucose levels that exceed the normal limit (hyperglycemia) due to the body lacking insulin both absolute and relative. Before developing into type 2 diabetes, the usual always suffer from prediabetes who have symptoms of higher than normal blood sugar levels but not high enough for diabetes diagnosis. At least 20% of the population over 40 to 74 years suffering from pre-diabetes. Diagnosis of diabetes is based on symptoms of 3P (polydagi, polifagi, polyuri) and blood tests that show high blood sugar levels (not normal).
To measure blood sugar levels, blood samples are usually taken after the patient fasts for 8 hours or can be taken after meals. The sufferers need special attention over the age of 65 years. Preferably the examination done after fasting and not after eating because of old age has a higher blood sugar increase.
Someone is said to have diabetes if on blood test of blood vessels (capillary) blood glucose more than 120 mg / dl in fasting state and / or more than 200mg / dl for 2 hours after meal. When the blood is taken back (vein), fasting glucose is more than 140 mg / dl and / or 200 mg / dl for 2 hours after meals.
Blood glucose less than 120 or 140 mg / dl in fasting conditions but between 140-200 mg / dl at 2 hours after meals is referred to as Impaired Glucose Tolerance (TGT) which does not require treatment but still requires regular monitoring. Other blood tests that can be done is a test of glucose tolerance. This test is done in certain circumstances, for example in pregnant women. This is to detect diabetes that often occurs in pregnant women.
Patients fasting and blood samples taken to measure fasting blood sugar levels. Then the patient is asked to drink a special solution containing a certain amount of glucose and 2-3 hours later the blood sample is taken again for examination. Blood glucose results in blood samples compared with blood sugar diagnostic criteria.
The classic symptoms of diabetes mellitus from this disease that is not treated immediately is the patient will experience weight loss, frequent urination, often thirsty and often feel hungry. Symptoms of diabetes will continue to grow very quickly in just a few weeks or a few months in type 1 diabetes. While in type 2 diabetes will generally progress to a much slower and possibly without any symptoms at all or not clear.
In addition to the above symptoms of diabetes mellitus, diabetes also shows signs or other symptoms even though this does not fall into the specifications for diabetes. Patients will experience blurred vision, headache, long wound healing process, and itching. With the increase of slow blood glucose can cause the process of glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, thus causing changes in shape, as well as changes in the sharpness of the viewer of the patient. As well as the presence of a number of itching due to diabetes known as diabetic dermadromes.